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学习材料-英语-2017李克强总理记者会双语实录
发布处室:外事翻译中心       发布日期:2017-04-06       来源:       阅读次数:
保护视力色: 杏仁黄 秋叶褐 胭脂红 芥末绿 天蓝 雪青 灰 银河白(默认色) 【文字
2017李克强总理记者会双语实录(全文)
 
2017年3月15日上午,十二届全国人大五次会议在人民大会堂举行记者会,国务院总理李克强应大会发言人傅莹的邀请会见中外记者,并回答记者提问。

李克强:刚才我听主持人说,由于来的人多,很多记者提前两三个小时就到这里了,大家很辛苦,也充分表现了你们的职业精神,我对中外记者对中国两会报道所付出的辛劳表示感谢。时间有限,我们单刀直入,我愿意回答记者朋友们提出的问题。
Premier Li Keqiang: The moderator told me that some of the journalists came to the Great Hall of the People for this press conference as early as two to three hours in advance. This shows how hard you work and how committed you are to this profession. I want to thank you for your efforts in covering the "Two Sessions" this year. Since we only have limited time, I suggest we get the questions started right away.
 
美国有线电视新闻网记者:特朗普总统一直对华发表一些批评性言论,表示中国偷窃了美国就业岗位,批评中国汇率政策以及中国在维护地区安全上做得不够。我们还了解到,最早就在下个月,中美两国元首可能会实现会晤。我们对于美国希望从中国得到什么已经有了一些概念,我想问,中国希望从美国那儿得到什么?中国对于一个健康可持续发展的中美关系的底线是什么?您是否有信心实现这样的中美关系的发展?还是觉得前路比较艰难?
CNN: President Trump has been consistently critical of China, claiming that it's stealing US jobs, manipulating its currency and not doing enough for regional security. Now we are hearing that the US-China talk of the highest level may take place as early as next month. We have a good idea of what the US wants from China, but what does China want from the US? What is China's bottom line for a healthy, sustainable Sino-US relationship? Are you confident that you can achieve that or will it be a difficult process?
 
李克强:你的提问让我回想起去年9月份,我去联合国出席联大系列高级别会议期间到美国纽约经济俱乐部演讲,当时美国总统大选正在白热化阶段,就有人向我提问,如果新的总统当选,中美关系会不会有大的改变?我的回答是,不管谁当选美国总统,虽然中美关系经历过风风雨雨,但会一直前行,我对此持乐观态度。特朗普总统当选以后,习近平主席和特朗普总统通了电话,两国元首都表示要共同推动中美关系向前发展。特朗普总统和美国新政府的高官也都明确表示,要坚持一个中国政策,这是中美关系的政治基础,不是风云变幻能够动摇的,也动摇不得。有了这样一个政治基础,中美合作的前景是广阔的。
Premier Li: Your question reminds me of my trip to New York last September for the UN General Assembly meeting and other high-level events. I was asked a question about China-US ties following a speech at the New York Economic Club. It was a time when the US presidential campaign was turning white-hot. I was asked whether there will be significant change in China-US ties when a new president is elected. My reply was that China-US relations have been going forward in spite of twists and turns in the past decades. So I am optimistic about the future of this relationship no matter who gets elected. President Trump has since been elected, and President Xi Jinping has talked with him over the phone. The two presidents agreed to work together for further progress in China-US relations. President Trump and senior officials from the new US administration have explicitly reaffirmed continued US adherence to the one-China policy, which forms the political foundation of China-US relations. This foundation has remained firm and unshaken despite changing circumstances, and it would always remain so in the future. With the right political foundation in place, China-US cooperation enjoys bright prospects.
我们之所以对中美关系前行持乐观态度,是因为中美建交几十年了,已经有了广泛的共同利益。当然,我们之间也有分歧,比如你刚才提到的在就业岗位、汇率等问题上有些看法不一,或者在安全问题上也有不同认识。我们双方都需要保持战略定力,加强沟通,坐下来谈,增进相互了解和理解,现在两国外交部门正就两国元首会晤进行沟通。我想,中美关系不仅关系两国利益,而且事关地区和世界的和平安全稳定,我们要维护它前行。
We feel optimistic about the future of China-US relations on the strength of the extensive common interests that have bound the two countries together in the course of several decades of our diplomatic relations. It is true that there are some differences between the two countries over issues like jobs, exchange rate and security. What's important for both countries is to stay focused on the overall interests, and enhance dialogue and communication to deepen mutual understanding. Foreign relations departments of our countries are now engaged in discussions on a face-to-face meeting between the two presidents. This relationship is crucial not just for the interests of our countries, but also for regional and global peace, security and stability. We must work together to take it forward continuously.
 
至于贸易问题,我在两会参加代表团讨论时,有来自外贸企业的人大代表跟我说,虽然中方是贸易顺差,但是企业生产的产品利润90%以上是美国企业拿走了,中国的生产企业拿到的利润最低只有2%-3%。据有关统计,光去年一年,中美的贸易、投资给美国创造的就业岗位过百万个。当然,各方的统计方法可能不一,没关系,我们坐下来谈,总是会有共识的,即便一时达不成共识,可以搁置分歧。智者的办法是扩大共同利益,分歧点所占比例就会越来越小。
As for China-US trade, I want to share with you what an NPC deputy from a foreign trade company told me during this year's Two Sessions. He said that although China runs a surplus in trade with the US, for his company, over 90% of the profits goes to US firms, and the profit margin of his business is a mere 2 to 3 percent. Statistics show that last year, trade and mutual investment between the two countries created up to one million jobs in the United States. We may have different statistical methods, but I believe whatever differences we may have, we can always sit down and talk about them, and work together to find solutions. And for those differences that cannot be resolved for the time being, they can be shelved and we may continue to focus on expanding common interests, which I believe is the wise choice. And as we do so, the differences will account for a lesser and lesser proportion in overall China-US relations.
 
我想起前两天看到国际上有一个权威智库发表文章,他们认为,如果中美发生贸易战的话,首先受损的是外资企业,首当其冲的是美资企业。我们不希望看到打贸易战,贸易战带不来贸易公平,而且双方都受损。现在全世界都比较关心中美关系,中方希望,中美关系不管有什么样的坎坷,还是要向前走、向好处走。中美两国人民都是伟大的人民,我们有智慧来管控分歧,我们有需要也有条件来扩大共同利益。
I also want to cite a recent article written by a well-reputed international think-tank. It says that should a trade war break out between China and the United States, it would be the foreign-invested companies in China, particularly US firms that would bear the brunt of it. We don't want to see a trade war. A trade war won't make our trade fairer. It will only hurt both sides. I understand the whole world is paying close attention to China-US relations. China hopes that no matter what bumps this relationship may run into, it will continue to move forward in a positive direction. Both our peoples are great people and we believe that we have the wisdom to properly manage differences. There is the need and capacity on both sides to expand common interests.
 
中央人民广播电台记者:我们注意到这几年中国经济的增长速度在持续放缓,今年又把经济增长的预期目标下调到6.5%左右,这是否会对世界经济造成不利的影响?另外有人认为中国经济存在很多风险,特别是在金融方面的风险,中国是否能够在世界经济疲软这个大背景下继续扮演世界经济推动者的角色?
China National Radio: China's economic growth has been declining in recent years and we have seen that the projected target of GDP growth in 2017 has been trimmed to about 6.5%. Will this adversely affect the global economy? Some people say that China's economy still faces a lot of risks, especially in the financial sector. Do you think that China's economy will remain an engine driving global economy when global economic growth remains sluggish?
 
李克强:我们把今年经济增速定在6.5%左右,我看到有外媒报道说中国是温和下调了增速。其实,增长6.5%这个速度不低了,也很不容易。我曾经在中国少林寺陪同外宾看过武僧表演,几岁的小武僧一口气翻十几个跟头不费劲,而练过十几年武功的青年武僧翻三五个跟头就了不得了,主要是块头大了。如果今年中国实现经济增长目标,增量比去年还要大,因为这是在我们经济总量已经超过74万亿元人民币,相当于11万亿美元基础上的增长,而且可以带动1100万人以上的就业。我们这样做符合经济规律,也可以使注意力更多地放到提高质量和效益上来,对世界经济增长的贡献率不会低。中国仍然是世界经济复苏乏力情况下推动全球增长的重要力量。
Premier Li: I read some foreign media commentary describing the projected GDP growth target of about 6.5% this year as moderate downward adjustment. In fact, 6.5% growth is not a low speed and it would not be easy to meet this target. I can't help but recall a martial art performance I saw at Shaolin Temple, during which a child monk can do over a dozen somersaults at one go quite easily, but several such consecutive somersaults for an adult monk would be quite an accomplishment due to their different size. 6.5% of GDP growth in 2017, if achieved, would generate more additional economic output than last year, as this is a growth attained on the basis of RMB 74 trillion yuan, or US$11 trillion in GDP. And this growth is projected to generate over 11 million new urban jobs. The measures we take are consistent with the laws of economics, and moreover, slower growth can help us better focus on enhancing the quality and performance of China's economy. I don't think China's contribution to global growth will come down. We believe China's economy will continue to be a strong driving force in the face of sluggish world economic recovery.
 
至于说到风险,今年世界经济政治不确定的因素很多,这是很大的外部风险。对中国来讲,不发展是最大的风险。我们保持中高速的稳定增长,本身就是在为世界稳定做贡献。当然,我们自己也有一些不可忽视的风险,像你刚刚提到的金融领域。对于这些风险点,我们是高度关注的,发现了会及时处置,“靶向治疗”,不会让它蔓延。当然,我还必须强调,中国金融体系总体是安全的,不会发生系统性风险,因为我们有很多应对工具,储备政策许多还没有用。我们的财政赤字率没超过3%,商业银行资本充足率在13%,拨备覆盖率176%,这些都超过许多国家,特别是国际上所确定的相关标准。所以我们是有能力防范风险的。当然,我们在中高速行进当中也会系紧“安全带”,不会让风险“急性发作”,更不会发生区域性或者系统性的风险。
With respect to risks, we are seeing growing uncertainties in the international economic and political landscape. These are the risks on the external front. As for China, stalled development presents the biggest risk. So it is essential that we maintain steady, medium-high growth and that, in itself, is China's contribution to global stability. We take very seriously the risks we face on the domestic front, including the financial sector. We will take prompt and targeted measures to prevent them from spreading. I should point out that China's financial system is generally secure and we do not foresee systemic risks. We still have a good reserve of policy options and instruments at our disposal. Our deficit to GDP ratio is below 3%. The capital adequacy ratio of commercial banks in China is 13% and their provision coverage ratio is 176%, both above the international standards for financial security. As the express train of China's economy continues to roll along at medium-high speed, we need to fasten our seat belt and ward off acute outbreaks of risks. Still less will we allow regional or systemic risks to break out.
 
彭博社记者:随着美国收缩它在全球贸易体系中所发挥的作用,包括退出跨太平洋伙伴关系协定,似乎中国愿意在全球贸易中发挥领导性作用。您和习近平主席都倡导自由贸易、开放型经济以及全球化。但同时我们看到,中国也在实施不公平贸易、自身经济开放速度还不够快方面受到批评。请问,在未来一年,中国会采取什么措施让国际社会确信中国是要致力于推进自由贸易和开放型经济的?
Bloomberg: As the United States pulls back from its roles in global trade deals, such as the TPP, China seems poised to take the leadership role. You and President Xi have become advocates of free trade, open economy and globalization. At the same time, China has come under criticism for unfair trade practices and not opening its economy fast enough. Can you say what steps you are taking in the next year to convince the rest of the world that China is committed to free trade and an open economy?
 
李克强:首先,在全球化进程受到一些非议或者在某些方面有挫折的情况下,中国始终坚持一贯的立场,那就是:维护经济全球化,支持自由贸易。这本身就表明中国是要推动开放。实际上,全球化使各国都受益了,不过在这个过程中也有一些问题,像收益分配等方面,但它们不是全球化本身的问题,而是应对的问题。中国愿意和世界各国一道来改善全球治理体系。全球化和世界的和平发展合作是一体的、不可分的。关起门来以邻为壑,解决不了问题。
Premier Li: Although globalization has encountered some bumps in the road, China has consistently upheld economic globalization and free trade. I believe such a position in itself is a good indication of China's commitment to opening-up. It is fair to say that economic globalization has benefited countries across the world. Some problems may have occurred in this process, for example, with respect to distribution of benefits. But we don't think they are the result of globalization per se but more of an issue of how one responds to it. China is ready to work with other countries to further improve the global governance system. We also believe that economic globalization has been deeply embedded in the global trend of peace, development and cooperation. A closed-door policy or beggar-thy-neighbor approach leads to no solutions.
 
中国和世界许多国家一样,是全球化的受益者,这其中也因为中国一直在坚持不断地扩大开放。中国首先要把自己的事情办好,但关起门来也办不好自己的事情。所以我们开放的大门会越开越大。当然,开放是一个渐进的过程。回过头来看,这几十年来,我们的步伐一直是向前进的。
Like many countries in the world, China has benefited from economic globalization as it has been opening up ever wider to the outside world. China needs to first run its own things well. But the truth is, this cannot be done with our doors shut. Hence we will only pursue greater openness. Naturally opening-up is a gradual process. The important thing is that we have kept moving forward for the past decades.
 
去年,我们吸引外资在发展中国家仍居首位,达到1260亿美元。世界银行对中国营商环境的评估,去年和2013年相比排名上升了18位。我们推动上海自贸试验区建设,已经逐步扩大到11个省区市,而且还会把普遍适用的经验向全国推广。我们还要在今年举办“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛,不断推出扩大开放的措施。我们也向很多国家提议,建立自由贸易区或者进行投资贸易协定的谈判,这些都是有利于双向开放的措施。
Last year, China was still the largest recipient of FDI among developing countries and FDI reached US$126 billion. In the World Bank's ease of doing business ranking, China moved up 18 spots in 2016 compared with where it was in 2013. We have launched 11 pilot free trade zones starting from Shanghai, and good experience gained from them will be applied across the country. This year we will hold the Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation and more steps for opening-up will be introduced. We have proposed to many countries the building of free trade zones or the negotiating of investment and trade agreements. These will all contribute to two-way opening-up.
 
有一点我想大家要明确,就是开放力度越大,开放程度越深,摩擦相应就会越多,但是占的比例会越来越小。对此,我们是有信心的。我们就是要打造开放的高地、投资的热土,和世界共享发展机遇。
One thing I should point out is that when one opens itself wider and at a higher level, there will be more frictions, but we are confident that their proportion to overall economic links will only get smaller. So China will open at a higher level and remain a popular destination for investment. We welcome other partners to share in China's development opportunities.
 
至于维护全球贸易的自由化,这需要世界各国共同努力,因为天下是天下人的天下。我们对已经达成或者希望达成的一些区域贸易安排一直持开放态度,也乐见其成。关于区域的自由贸易安排,涉及中国的,有条件的,我们持开放态度,愿意去进行推动。我们不会越俎代庖去做不应是中国做的事情。只要是有利于贸易自由化的,我们都会去参与、去推进,而且中国人明白,要以开放抓住全球化的机遇,不管有什么挑战都不能错过。
As for liberalization of global trade, we believe all countries need to work together to push it forward. The world belongs to us all and we all need to do our part to make things better. We are open-minded toward the various regional trading arrangements, established or proposed, and welcome progress in them. When they concern China and where conditions are in place, we would follow an open-minded approach and we would be ready to work with others to push them forward. But China has no intention to reach beyond its role or get involved where we shouldn't. China will participate in and support all initiatives that will promote the liberalization of global trade. We the Chinese understand that the opportunities of economic globalization must be seized through opening-up. They should not be missed no matter what challenges we may face.
 
《人民日报》记者:我们注意到这四年来您一直都抓住简政放权这件事情不放松,今年政府工作报告也显示,您所要求的本届政府要精简三分之一行政审批事项的任务已经提前完成了,那么剩下的三分之二呢?这项工作要不要继续往下推进,如果要继续的话您准备怎么推进?
People's Daily: Mr. Premier, over the past four years, you have been highly focused on the reform to streamline administration and delegate government powers. According to this year's government work report, the target of cutting the items which require the approval of the State Council and State Council ministries by one third before the end of this government's term has been fulfilled ahead of schedule. So what about the remaining two thirds? Will the reform be pushed through, and if so, what specific steps will be taken?
 
李克强:简政放权核心是要转变政府职能,处理好政府和市场的关系,这不是一朝一夕之功。我们的确已经完成了本届政府成立之初确定的任务,但是在推进的过程中发现这里面的名堂多了,不仅是审批权,还有名目繁多的行政许可、资格认证、各种奇葩证明,让企业不堪重负的收费等等,这些都属于简政放权要继续推进的内容。我们就是要在推进过程中,让政府职能得到转变,把更多的精力放到该管的事情上来。政府确实管了一些不该管、也不应属于自己管的事情,它束缚了市场主体的手脚,降低了行政效率,甚至影响了政府的公信力。因此,我们必须进行自我革命,刀刃向内,我一直说要用壮士断腕的精神坚韧不拔地推进这项改革,不管遇到什么样的问题,不管有多大阻力,要相信我们有足够的韧性。
Premier Li: The central goal of the reform is to transform government functions and balance relations between the government and the market. This reform cannot be accomplished overnight. You are right that my government's target for cutting the number of government review items has already been met. But in this process, we have encountered a variety of issues unexpectedly. In addition to government review and approval items, there are all sorts of procedures requiring administrative permits, certification of qualifications, and payment of all kinds of administrative fees. All these will be subject to reform. The reform will help the government focus on performing its due role more effectively and prevent government from overreaching itself, which has tied down our businesses and hurt government efficiency and credibility. It is a self-imposed reform involving sacrifices on the part of the government. I have all along called for boldness of spirit and decisiveness in action in pushing forward this reform. We will not relent until the job is done, no matter what obstacles or resistance may lie ahead. We should draw confidence from our ample strength and resilience.
 
简政放权、放管结合、优化服务是三位一体的,也就是政府要把更多的精力放到事中事后监管和优化对人民群众的服务上,把市场的准入放宽了,那就要为市场主体公平竞争营造环境。对那些假冒伪劣、坑蒙拐骗、侵犯知识产权以及涉及食品、药品、环保等群众密切关注的违法违规问题要坚决查处。我们要通过“互联网+政务服务”,让群众少跑腿、少烦心、多顺心。要把更多的力量用于扶贫攻坚、棚户区改造、义务教育、基本医疗等诸多民生关注的方面。
Streamlining administration, enhancing oversight where appropriate and improving government services: these three tasks reflect our holistic approach. Streamlining administration frees up government energy to improve compliance oversight and provide better services. By widening market access, we can level the playing field for all market entities. At the same time, we must seriously deal with any violation of laws and regulations, such as making and selling fake or substandard goods, cheating at the marketplace, violating intellectual property rights, as well as issues of great concern to the general public such as food and drug safety and the environment. Besides, the government will leverage the Internet to make public services more accessible to the people. The government will also focus more on poverty alleviation, development of inner cities, providing compulsory education, meeting basic health care needs and all other areas that concern people's livelihood.
 
简言之,就是要向依法依规的市场主体发出“前行、前行、再前行”的信号;向依靠劳动创业创新者亮起“可以、可以、再可以”的绿灯;对那些违法违规不良行为,就要及时亮出黄牌,甚至出红牌罚他下场。
In a nutshell, the government should send a resounding message of "yes" to law-abiding market entities, give the green light to hard-working entrepreneurs and innovators, and show a yellow card or even a red card to violators of laws and regulations.
 
日本经济新闻社记者:美国国务卿蒂勒森先生从今天起访问日本,之后他还要访问中国和韩国。外界认为此访的重点之一是讨论朝鲜半岛问题。当前,朝鲜继续试射导弹,推进核武计划,导致东北亚局势非常紧张。在此背景下,中国打算采取什么样的措施和行动来缓解紧张的地区局势?中方将如何同日本等相关国家合作,解决朝核问题。
Nikkei: US Secretary of State Tillerson is visiting Japan starting from today and then he is coming to China and the ROK. People believe that one of the key topics for discussion is the Korean Peninsula issue. We have seen that recently the DPRK has once again test-fired missiles and has been pushing forward its nuclear weapons program. All these have heightened tensions in Northeast Asia. I would like to ask what steps will China take to help ease the situation, and how will China work with Japan and other countries concerned to resolve the Korean Peninsula nuclear issue?
 
李克强:中国在朝鲜半岛问题上的立场是明确的、一贯的,坚持实现半岛无核化,坚持维护半岛和平稳定,坚持通过对话协商解决问题。对于联合国安理会已经通过的相关决议,中国一直态度鲜明,而且是全面严格执行。中国始终是核不扩散体系的坚定维护者。
Premier: China is committed to the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, to peace and stability there and to resolving issues through dialogue. That has been China's consistent and clear-cut position. With respect to UN Security Council resolutions, China has all along made clear its commitment to and fully complied with these resolutions. China is also a staunch supporter of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime.
 
的确,近来半岛乃至东北亚出现了一些紧张的气氛,紧张很可能会导致冲突,会使相关各方都受损。我们希望的是,各方共同努力,把紧张的气氛缓和下来,使大家都回到对话的轨道上来,最终解决问题。按常理说,谁也不愿意自己的家门口整天闹个不停。
It is true that recently the situation on the Korean Peninsula and in Northeast Asia more generally has become tense. Tensions may lead to conflict, which would harm all parties involved. We hope that all the parties concerned will work together to de-escalate the situation, get issues back on the track of dialogue and try to find lasting solutions. It's common sense that no one wants to see turbulence at his doorstep.
 
中央电视台记者:您常说就业是民生之本。有报道说,您每个月在看经济指标的时候,非常关注就业的变化。我们看到在政府工作报告中,您特别提到今年我国的就业压力加大。请问总理,今年会不会出现群体性的失业问题?
CCTV: You often say that employment is the foundation of people's livelihood. And of all the economic indicators, it is the statistics concerning jobs that you care the most about. In the government work report, you pointed out that this year, the government may face a more daunting task of providing employment. My question is, do you expect large scale unemployment in particular sectors this year?
 
李克强:可能稍加注意你们就会发现,在政府工作报告所提出的主要经济社会发展指标当中,有一项是抬高的,那就是今年我们要新增城镇就业1100万人以上,比去年的目标增加100万人。我们之所以要有6.5%左右的经济增速,稳增长主要还是要保就业。因为就业对我们这样一个13亿多人口的大国来说是最大的民生。就业是经济发展的基础,是财富增长的来源,也是居民收入的主渠道。我们这几年一直在实施积极的就业政策,已经连续4年实现新增城镇就业1300万人以上,今年更是强调就业优先,就是要保证能够实现比较充分的就业,把失业率控制在较低的水平。
Premier Li: If you read the government work report carefully, you will notice that we have adjusted a target upward among all the major economic and social development targets for 2017, namely we will create over 11 million new urban jobs, one million more on top of the target we set for 2016. The fact is, we have projected around 6.5% GDP growth mainly to support job creation. Employment is of paramount importance for such a large country as China with 1.3 billion-plus people. Employment is the foundation of economic development. It creates wealth and is a major source of household income. Over the past four years, we have pursued a proactive employment policy and created over 13 million new urban jobs every year for four years in a roll. This year, we will continue to give high priority to employment. The goal is to achieve fairly sufficient employment and keep unemployment at a low level.
 
这几年我们一直处在新成长劳动力的高峰,今年的就业压力仍然比较大,光高校毕业生就达795万,创历史新高,还有500万左右的中职毕业生,加上去过剩产能需要安置几十万转岗职工等等。
In the past several years, record numbers of job-seekers have entered the labor force, which is a big challenge for us. This year, we are going to have 7.95 million college graduates, the highest number in history. Five million will graduate from vocational schools. And several hundred thousand workers will be laid off in the process of cutting overcapacity.
 
我们要营造有利于创业就业的环境,不是靠政府去提供“铁饭碗”,而是让人民群众用劳动和智慧去创造或者说打造“金饭碗”。这几年我们就是通过创造岗位,实现了比较充分的就业。这里,我想请外国记者朋友能够多报道中国的就业岗位是靠自己创出来的。
The government's job is not to hand out the "iron rice bowl" or permanent jobs to the people, but to create enabling conditions for the people to use their own ingenuity and hard work to create or secure "gold rice bowls" so to speak. The employment rate in the past years has been fairly high because we have leveraged the enthusiasm for entrepreneurial and innovation activities. I would encourage the media, in particular foreign media, to report the fact that Chinese jobs are mainly created by the Chinese themselves.
 
我们完全有能力扩大就业,不会也不允许出现大规模群体性失业,对于一时不能就业、生计没有着落的群众,政府会负起责任,保障他们的基本生活。
The Chinese government has the ability to support more job creation. There will not be, nor will we allow mass unemployment. For those who have difficulty getting jobs or making ends meet, the government will do its part and provide for their basic needs.
 
新加坡《联合早报》记者:今年是本届政府的收官之年。您认为过去四年多最重要的成就是什么?最难攻克的又是什么?
Lianhe Zaobao: Mr. Premier, this year is the last year in the term of this government. My question is, what has been the most important achievement of the past four years? And what has been the greatest challenge?
 
李克强:你问的问题虽然简短,但比较大。如果说到四年来施政的主要成果,那就是在以习近平同志为核心的党中央领导下,全国上下共同努力,我们不断创新宏观调控方式,中国经济运行保持在合理区间,始终是中高速增长,四年来增速波动也就是1个百分点左右,可以说是平稳的。而且这不是靠“大水漫灌”的强刺激来获得的,而是通过推动产业、消费升级,使经济结构优化取得新进展,通过加快新旧动能转换促进经济出现向好势头,更重要的是带动了5000多万人的城镇新增就业。
Premier Li: It's a short but big question. The most important achievement of the past four years is that under the leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core and with the joint efforts of our people, we have developed new approaches to macroeconomic management and maintained steady economic performance within the proper parameters and a medium-high growth rate. The variation in annual growth rate, for example, is only about one percentage point. We have achieved such steady growth not by resorting to massive, economy-wide stimulus, but by industrial and consumption upgrading, which has contributed to the improvement of China's economic structure. We have encouraged the new drivers of economic growth to take the place of traditional ones. Most importantly, we have generated as many as 50 million new urban jobs.
 
这几年,我一直听到中国经济会“硬着陆”的声音,可以说不绝于耳。去年在世界经济和贸易增长出现7年来增速最低的情况下,中国仍然保持中高速增长。这几年的实践可以证明,中国经济“硬着陆”论可以休矣。中国经济不会“硬着陆”,我们会长期保持中高速增长,并迈向中高端水平。
Over the years, some people have predicted, once and again, that the Chinese economy will see a "hard landing". The truth is, we managed a medium-high growth rate last year in spite of the fact that world economic and trade growth hit a seven-year low. I hope this will put an end to any more predictions of a hard landing. The Chinese economy will continue to enjoy medium-high growth and move to a medium-high level.
 
当然,并不是说我们没有问题和挑战,所以要推动改革。说到最难的,还是在深化改革方面。比如说简政放权、放管结合、优化服务的改革,这不仅会触动利益,而且要触动灵魂。要让权力不能任性,就得把那些不应该有的权力砍掉,有些涉及到部门利益,要压缩寻租空间。这不是一个简单的过程,从中央政府一直到地方、到基层,都要这样做,要打通“最后一公里”。
At the same time, we also face many challenges and difficulties, hence the need for continuous reform. This is the biggest challenge for us. The reform to streamline administration, enhance oversight and provide better services is bound to upset vested interests; it also demands a fundamental change in our mindset. There should be no more arbitrary use of government power, the government must not overreach, and the room for rent-seeking must be squeezed. This is easier said than done. We must make sure that all levels of the government move in lockstep to travel the last mile and get rid of any remaining obstacles.
 
我到有的地方去看,在简政放权中一次封了108个公章,用一个公章代替。中国太大,不知道类似公章过多的情况哪些地方还有。你们可能也都记得,在前几年两会上,曾有人展示了一个项目审批“万里长征图”,据说现在变成“百里”了,百里也不短啊,还要继续推进。我前面已经讲了,不管有什么样的阻力,我们都有足够的韧性推动改革。改革就是要解放和发展生产力,调动广大人民的积极性,让群众得到实惠。为政之要就是要舍小利、顾大义、顺民心。
During an inspection trip, I was shown that, instead of requiring a stamp of approval from 108 government departments, the streamlined process required only one. With China being so big, there may be similar situations of excessive requirements for government approval elsewhere. You may remember that a few years ago, a delegate at the Two Sessions produced a so-called Long-March matrix, showing all the intricate procedures for administrative approval. Although things have been streamlined significantly and the long march has been substantially reduced, it's still too much. Let me repeat that no matter what obstacle may lie ahead, we are determined to push the reform through. The goal is to unleash and grow productive forces, bring out the initiative of the people, and deliver greater benefits to the general public. After all, governance is all about letting go of narrow departmental interests for the greater good and always responding to the people's call.
 
《深圳特区报》记者:去年10月您到深圳参加“全国双创周”主会场的活动。据统计,一周之内有50万人参加了这次活动,场面非常火爆。过去一年大众创业、万众创新蓬勃发展,现在共享经济发展也很快,但是也有人有不同的看法。请问总理,您觉得“双创”的热情会持久吗?
Shenzhen News: Mr. Premier, last October, you attended the National Week of Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Shenzhen. It is estimated that as many as 500,000 people participated in the national week's activities, making it a very popular event. Over the past year, this initiative of mass entrepreneurship and innovation has caught on, and the sharing economy has seen rapid expansion. But some people may see these developments in a different way. Mr. Premier, do you think this public enthusiasm for entrepreneurship and innovation will continue?
 
李克强:“双创”可以说是应运而生,在全球化、“互联网+”的时代,我们推动“放管服”改革,促进了大众创业、万众创新。这3年多来,每天平均有4万个以上市场主体注册登记,相当于每年新增1000多万个。我和有些外国的领导人谈到这件事,他们很惊讶,这相当于他们国家中小微企业的总量。其实“双创”不仅是中小微企业的事,也是大企业的事,现在许多大企业也在推动“双创”,在线上创造很多众创空间,让线上的工人当创客,和订单背后的市场需求结合起来,更适应消费者的需要。“双创”覆盖了一二三产业、大中小企业,有着很强的生命力。
Premier Li: We believe that our initiative of mass entrepreneurship and innovation is a response to the call of this age of economic globalization and Internet Plus. The government's further reform of streamlining administration and delegating powers is also designed to boost this public enthusiasm for business start-ups and innovation. Over the past three years and more, on an average daily basis, more than 40,000 market entities have got registered, adding up to 10 million every year. When I share this figure with foreign leaders, they were truly amazed as this is equivalent to the total number of SMEs in their countries. Not only SMEs are doing entrepreneurial and innovation activities. Big companies are actively engaged in this too. They have opened up vast online makerspaces to enable a matching between the innovative capabilities of their employees with the demands of customers in the marketplace. This initiative runs through the development of primary, secondary and tertiary industries and involves businesses of all sizes. So I believe it will continue to thrive.
 
 “双创”不仅带动了大量就业,促进创新驱动发展战略深入实施,它也是一场改革,因为它抓住了“人”这个生产力当中最重要的因素,让人的聪明才智和活力充分展现出来,让大家有改变命运、获得纵向上升的平等机会。它也创新了生产模式,许多新业态,像共享经济、“互联网+”等等,可以说层出不穷,这些新业态有的是新旧动能转换过程当中产生的,新旧嫁接,有的是“老树开新花”,总的看它适应了市场的需求,适应了消费者个性化、多样化的要求。
This initiative has generated a great deal of jobs. It is also an important means to implement the strategy of innovation-driven development. This initiative is a process of reform too because it captures the most important element in productive forces, that is, human resources. It helps bring out the wisdom and motivation of each individual and gives them an opportunity for a fair shot at success and upward mobility. It has also boosted the development of many new production and business models, like the "Internet Plus" and sharing economy. Some of the new business models appear in the synergy between old and new growth drivers. Others are the result of traditional drivers of growth being given renewed life with the application of new technologies. This initiative has, in a nutshell, responded well to market demand and individualistic needs of our customers.
 
另外,新业态的成长也倒逼了政府职能转变。确实,这些新业态很多是过去未知的,有争议是正常的,我们还是要以开放的态度、包容的理念审慎监管,促使它们健康发展。
The growing new business models have also created pressure on the government to enhance its capability, because after all, many of the forms of business are new things. When it comes to such new things, it's only normal for people to have different views. For the government, it needs to exercise careful regulation in an open-minded and accommodating way to promote their healthy development.
 
我一直在想,也一直这么认为,中国有1.7亿受过高等教育和拥有高技能的人才,与近8亿的劳动力结合起来,能创造的财富,激发的能量是难以估算的,也会给市场,包括世界市场带来巨大的机遇。中国人民勤劳智慧,有着追求美好生活的不竭动力,政府就是要创造环境,让人民群众创业创新的热情持久不衰。当然“双创”和许多新事物一样,发展过程当中一些方面、一些企业会遇到曲折,但是大方向是正确的。
I have all along believed that China's nearly 800 million labor force, including the 170 million who have received higher education or possess high professional skills, represents a tremendous source of wealth and energy and enormous opportunities for China itself and the international market too. The Chinese people are intelligent and hard-working and they have an inexhaustible drive for pursuing a better life. The government needs to create an enabling environment for our people to stay enthusiastic for entrepreneurship and innovation. Some people and some enterprises may experience difficulties as this initiative unfolds, which is only normal for the development of new things. But we have the confidence to ensure that our initiative continue to move in the right direction.
 
凤凰卫视记者:今年政府工作报告中,您首次提到了“港独”问题,指出“港独是没有出路的”,这是否意味着政策上会有什么变化?比如在落实“一国两制”这个原则问题上是否会更加强调“一国”而弱化“两制”?或者以后中央对香港的支持会减少?
Phoenix TV: This year's government work report, for the first time, contains a reference to the notion of "Hong Kong independence", pointing out that Hong Kong independence will lead nowhere. I wonder if this indicates a change in the policy of the central government. Does it mean that the central government, in implementing the principle of "one country, two systems", will put more emphasis on the part of "one country" and downplay the part of "two systems"? Does it mean that the central government will reduce its support to Hong Kong?
 
李克强:对“一国两制”的方针要全面理解和执行,我在政府工作报告中已经说了,“一国两制”的实践要不动摇、不走样、不变形。
Premier Li: The principle of "one country, two systems" needs to be understood and implemented in its entirety. As I have also said in the government work report, this principle needs to be steadfastly applied without being bent or distorted.
 
至于说支持香港发展,中央政府会不断地加大力度,继续出台许多有利于香港发展、有利于内地和香港合作的举措。比如说去年我们出台了“深港通”。我们要进一步探索开放债券市场,这是国家的需要,香港也有平台。我们准备今年在香港和内地试行“债券通”,也就是说允许境外资金在境外购买内地的债券,这是第一次。香港是近水楼台先得月,这有利于维护香港国际金融中心的地位,有利于香港居民有更多的投资渠道从而受惠,有利于香港的长期繁荣稳定。
The central government will continue to enhance its support to Hong Kong's development and will introduce more measures in the interest of Hong Kong's development and its cooperation with the mainland. Last year, we launched the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect. This year, we will actively explore greater cooperation over the bond markets. That is what the country needs, and Hong Kong has a platform for it too. We are considering establishing a bond market connect between the mainland and Hong Kong this year, allowing for the first time overseas capital to buy mainland's bonds overseas. Hong Kong stands to be the first to benefit from such arrangement thanks to its unique strengths. We believe this will help maintain Hong Kong's status as an international financial center, diversify investment channels for Hong Kong residents, and contribute to Hong Kong's lasting prosperity and stability.
 
俄通社-塔斯社记者:请问您如何评价中俄关系?两国是否能够在世界经济不稳定、能源价格波动的背景下取得经贸关系发展?
TASS of Russia: Mr. Premier, how do you evaluate overall China-Russia relations? Do you think that the economic relations between the two countries will enjoy further growth in the face of uncertainties in the international economic landscape and volatility of global energy prices?
 
李克强:说到中俄关系,两国互为最大的近邻,是全面战略协作伙伴关系。中俄关系的健康稳定发展,不仅有利于地区,也有利于世界。去年两国元首多次会晤,达成许多重要共识。中俄总理定期会晤多年来一直如期举行,这本身表明了中俄关系的稳定性。
Premier Li: China and Russia are each other's biggest neighbors. We enjoy a comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination. Sound and steady growth of China-Russia relations is good for the region and good for the world. Last year, presidents of the two countries met several times and reached important agreement on many issues. And the prime ministers' annual meeting has been held as scheduled every year for many years. I believe all this is evidence of the stability of China-Russia relations.
 
至于说到两国的经贸关系,这些年世界经济复苏低迷,贸易增长乏力,中俄经贸合作由于能源价格下跌等因素也受到一些影响。记得在去年记者会上,我曾经说希望中俄经贸合作当年能够有转折性变化,现在应该说实现了,当然这是我们共同努力的结果。特别是今年前两个月,中俄贸易额有大幅增长,这表明中俄双方经贸合作的潜力很大,互补性很强,双方所设定的经贸合作目标是可以实现的。
Talking about economic relations and trade between our two countries, over the years, we have faced sluggish global economic recovery and anemic growth of global trade. So naturally our economic relations and trade have been affected by the decline in international energy prices and some other factors. I recall that last year, on the same occasion, I expressed the hope for our business relations to turn the corner and achieve strong growth by the end of the year. Thanks to our joint efforts, this has been achieved. In the first two months of this year, there was actually a big surge in China-Russia trade. This shows the tremendous untapped potential of our trade ties and the great complementarity of our economies. I am confident that the goals we set for our two-way trade can be achieved.
 
财新杂志记者:现在人民币汇率有一定的下跌压力,但是要稳住汇率,要么就是消耗外汇储备,要么就要加强外汇管制。您如何看待汇率下跌、外储下降或者外汇管制的代价?这几害相权您会作何选择?
Caixin: China's RMB exchange rate has been under pressure of depreciation. To keep exchange rate stable, one has to either dig into foreign exchange reserves or tighten control on the use of foreign currencies. Among the three scenarios of a weaker currency, drop in foreign exchange reserves and tightened currency control, how would you weigh the costs of each scenario and what choice will you make?
 
李克强:首先关于汇率。去年因为国际货币市场动荡,特别是美元走高,许多货币尤其是主要国际货币对美元的汇率大幅度贬值,而人民币汇率贬值幅度是比较小的。我们不希望通过贬值来增加出口,这不利于企业转型升级。我们也不希望打贸易战,这不利于国际贸易和货币体系的稳定。我们坚持推进人民币汇率形成机制的改革,实行以市场供求为基础、有管理的浮动汇率制度。可以说在人民币汇率弹性加大的情况下,我们保持了人民币汇率在合理均衡水平上的基本稳定。当然,这也得益于中国经济基本面向好。人民币汇率的基本稳定是对国际货币体系稳定的重要贡献。
Premier Li: First, on the exchange rate. Last year, there has been some volatility on international currency markets. Many currencies especially major global currencies have depreciated against the strengthening US dollar. The depreciation of the Chinese yuan against the dollar is a quite modest one. China has no intention to devalue its currency in order to boost exports, because that is not good for our companies' transformation and upgrading. China has no intention to fight any trade war either, as that is not good for the stability of global trade and the international monetary system. China will continue to push forward the market-oriented reform of its exchange rate regime, and follow a market-based, managed floating exchange rate regime. As the floating band of the Chinese yuan widens, the RMB exchange rate has remained broadly stable at an adaptive and equilibrium level. That is attributable to the sound economic fundamentals in China. By keeping the RMB exchange rate broadly stable, China will continue to contribute to the stability of global monetary system.
 
至于说到外汇储备,中国是世界上外汇储备最多的国家。合理的外汇储备规模到底需要多少,这有一个实践探索的过程。总之,我们的外汇储备是充裕的,是足以支付进口和满足短期偿债需要的,远远高于国际标准。
China still has the largest foreign exchange reserves among all countries in the world. As to what is the right size for our foreign exchange reserves, I believe that will continue to be up for exploration. All in all, China has ample foreign exchange reserves for meeting relevant needs, like paying for imports or paying off its short-term external debts. And China's foreign exchange reserves are way above the international standard.
 
说到我们对于用汇进行真实性、合规性审查,实际上这是法律法规早就规定的。我在这里明确,企业正常的用汇、居民到国外求学旅游等的合理用汇是有保证的。人民币在国际货币体系中是有分量的,汇率会保持基本稳定。
As for our recent authenticity and compliance review of the use of foreign currency, that has been a legal provision for a long time, not something new. I want to emphasize that the need of our businesses for normal use of foreign currency and that of individuals to study or travel overseas is assured. The RMB has solid weight in the international monetary system and the RMB exchange rate will remain generally stable.
 
路透社记者:今年中国政府准备进一步减少无效供给,扩大有效供给。在这一过程中,政府需要确保下岗工人能找到新的工作,并确保他们的生计。如果我是一名矿工或是钢厂工人,我能在本省找到什么样的新工作呢?今年预计哪些部门会出现工作岗位增加?
Reuters: This year, the Chinese government will further reduce ineffective supply and expand effective supply. While doing that, the government needs to ensure that laid-off workers will be re-employed and their basic living needs will be met. If I were a miner or a worker of a steel plant, what kind of new jobs can I expect to get in my province? In what sectors do you expect an increase in job opportunities?
 
李克强:你把就业问题更加人性化、个性化了。去年,我们推动供给侧结构性改革的一个重要任务就是化解钢铁、煤炭行业的过剩和落后产能,我们最关心的就是在去产能过程中如何安置好职工。所以中央财政拿了1000亿元专项资金用于员工转岗安置,并且要求地方政府配套。去年,有72万多去过剩产能过程中的职工得到了妥善安置,当然,还有一些职工因为多种因素没有到新的就业岗位上,包括有的职工和企业有比较深的感情,想多留一段,但他们的生活都是有着落的。
Premier Li:You have given the employment issue a human face. Last year, we took vigorous efforts to cut excessive and outdated capacity in steel and coal sectors as a priority task for supply-side structural reform. A key concern for us in this process is the proper resettlement of laid-off workers. The central government has earmarked 100 billion yuan in a special fund to provide assistance to them and asked local governments to set up matching funds. Last year, proper arrangements were made for 720,000 workers who were laid off as a result of cutting overcapacity. For various reasons, there are still workers yet to find new jobs. In some cases, given the strong attachment between the workers and their employers, some may prefer to stay on a bit longer with their former employers. Still, their essential living needs are provided for.
 
今年去产能还要扩大到煤电领域,加上去年一些还没安置的职工,累计可能会有近百万人需要安置。我们的办法还是创造新的岗位,因为我们在推动发展新动能。刚才我讲了“双创”带动了大量新的就业,实际上也转移了许多传统动能的就业,新旧动能转换为传统产业带来了新的活力和生机,催生了新的就业岗位。当然我们没有掉以轻心,还会继续运用好专项基金,并要求地方政府做好配套。同时,企业也要尽社会责任。
This year, effort to cut overcapacity will be extended to the coal-fired power generation sector. Factoring in the number carried over from last year, we need to provide assistance to nearly one million people in total. The key is to continue to generate new jobs, including through our efforts to foster new drivers of growth. As I said before, the initiative of mass entrepreneurship and innovation has both created a lot of new jobs and stimulated job creation in traditional sectors, which has helped to revive these industries. We will not relent our efforts and will continue to put to effective use the central government special fund complemented by funding from local governments. At the same time, businesses also need to fulfill their social responsibilities.
 
如果你是一名煤矿工人,这个矿被淘汰,或者暂时停产了,我看你有很强的、灵活的就业能力,我建议你到新动能企业去,或者到老动能中产生的新职业中去。而且中国很多企业是有企业文化的,他们对老职工有感情,去新岗位就业了,企业仍然还会给一些补贴,扶上马、送一程。总而言之,把职工安置好,是我们推进供给侧结构性改革、推动化解和淘汰过剩产能中最关键的问题。
So if you were a coal miner, your mine is going to be closed or its production suspended, and you are capable of flexible employment, I will advise you to find a job in sectors with new drivers of growth or move to new jobs generated in the upgraded traditional industries. Moreover, Chinese companies, whose corporate culture encourages close employer-employee relationships, will continue to provide subsidies to their loyal employees for some time to give them a leg-up. All in all, easing the transition for laid-off workers will remain our top concern in cutting overcapacity and pursuing the supply-side structural reform.
 
澎湃新闻记者:今年两会前夕,中国政府网联合27家网络媒体共同发起“我向总理说句话”建言征集活动,澎湃新闻和今日头条就其中与民生密切相关问题进行了网上投票。到目前,已经有2131万网友投给了“房屋产权70年到期后怎么办?”,排第一位。请问总理,国家准备怎么解决这一问题?
ThePaper.cn: In the run-up to this year's two Sessions, the Chinese government's portal website, together with 27 online media outlets, conducted an online survey on the theme of "What I wish to say to the Premier" to solicit public comments and suggestions for the government. Viewers were further requested by ThePaper.cn and Toutiao.com to vote on entries on people's daily lives. The question of "what will happen to my home when the 70-year term of land use right expires", has received the most votes, or 21.31 million in total. My question is, what will the government do to address this public concern?
李克强:中国有句古话:有恒产者有恒心。包括网民在内的广大群众,对70年住宅土地使用权到期续期问题普遍关心是可以理解的。国务院已经要求有关部门作了回应,就是可以续期,不需申请,没有前置条件,也不影响交易。当然,也可能有人说,你们只是说,有法律保障吗?我在这里强调,国务院已经责成相关部门就不动产保护相关法律抓紧研究提出议案。
Premier Li: Our ancestors believe that one shall have his peace of mind when he possesses a piece of land. So it's understandable for internet users and other members of the general public to feel concerned about the expiry of the 70-year term land use right of their residences. The State Council had asked the relevant departments to respond to these concerns. Specifically, the term can be renewed, and no application or pre-set conditions needs to be filed or met. And the expiry will not affect any transactions over the property. Some people may wonder whether there will be legal safeguards for this right. I want to tell you that the State Council has entrusted relevant departments to speed up their study on relevant laws and come up with a proposal.
 
泰国《经理报》记者:奥巴马总统任职期间提出了“亚太再平衡”的战略,特朗普政府现在正在制定对亚洲外交政策,泰国和其他东南亚国家都希望本地区保持和平和稳定,不愿意看到中美在这一地区发生冲突,更不愿意在其中“选边站队”。您怎么看中国在亚太地区发挥的作用?中国对于本地区理想化的秩序和规则是怎样的?中美如何在这个地区继续和平共处?
Manager Daily of Thailand: The Obama administration adopted a rebalancing policy towards the Asia-Pacific region while the Trump administration is yet to spell out its policy in Asia. Thailand and other countries in Southeast Asia hope this region maintains peace and stability. We don't want to see any conflict between China and the US here, even more reluctant to take sides. How do you view China's present role in the Asia-Pacific region? What is China's ideal order and role for the region? How can China and the US live in peace in this region?
 
李克强:亚太地区是地区国家共有的家园,我们不希望、也不愿意看到冷战思维下所谓“选边站队”的事情发生,有什么事情要按是非曲直来说话,总的还是要维护亚太地区的和平和稳定。在亚太地区,我们始终把东盟作为中国周边外交的优先方向,支持东盟共同体建设,在区域合作中发挥中心地位作用。我们希望看到的亚太地区是一个稳定、有秩序的地区,是一个可以协商一致达成原则的地区,是一个有能力管控分歧的地区,也是一个有智慧解决争端的地区。
Premier Li: The Asia-Pacific is the common home for all countries in this region. China does not want to see any party feeling compelled to choose sides under the influence of the Cold-War mentality. We believe regional affairs should be handled on the merits of each case and in a way that is conducive to continued peace and stability. As for ASEAN, we always put ASEAN in a priority position in China's neighborhood diplomacy, and support ASEAN community building and its centrality in regional cooperation. China hopes to see an Asia-Pacific that enjoys order and stability, that is able to build consensus through consultation and properly manage differences, and has the wisdom to resolve disputes.
中国和东盟正在推进《南海行为准则》磋商,已经取得了实质性进展,我们还会继续积极推进。我们希望维护南海的和平稳定,有关争端由当事方直接对话解决,各方共同维护地区的和平稳定与发展。
China and ASEAN have been pushing forward the consultation on a code of conduct in the South China Sea. Substantive progress has been made in this regard and we will keep working on that. It is our hope that peace and stability in the South China Sea could be maintained, specific disputes be resolved through dialogue by the parties directly concerned and all countries in the region work together for peace, stability and development.
 
中美在亚太地区合作多年了,我们有许多合作的交汇点。不少美国跨国公司把亚太地区销售总部放在中国,我们希望中美合作的共同利益不断扩大,使东盟国家能从中得到机遇,而不是感到麻烦。
For years, China and the United States have been cooperating in many areas in the Asia-Pacific region. Many US multinationals place their Asia-Pacific headquarters in China. We hope that the areas of cooperation between the two countries will continue to widen, providing more opportunities for ASEAN countries instead of being a cause of concern for them.
 
新华社记者:我们在调研采访中了解到,现在一些企业抱怨税费负担过重,辛苦半天也挣不了多少钱。也有消费者抱怨,很多高品质的产品在国内生产不了。请问总理,您对此怎么看?有什么进一步改进的政策措施?
Xinhua News Agency: We've discovered that there is growing complaint on the part of businesses about the heavy burden of taxes and fees. They say that even with hard work, they couldn't make much money. And we've also heard complaints from Chinese consumers that some high-end goods are not yet domestically made. What is your response to their complaints, Mr. Premier? And what steps will the government take to resolve the issue?
 
李克强:我在政府工作报告中用了很多篇幅提出了许多措施来强调,今年要推进更大力度的减税降费,特别是那些名目繁多、企业不堪重负的行政事业性收费。这些收费本来是有用途的,有的是用来“养人”的,减少收费,那政府就要过紧日子。我明确提出,中央政府要带头,一般性支出一律减少5%以上。我在参加代表团讨论时,许多地方政府也都有这样的表示。我们就是要用政府的“痛”换来企业的“顺”,让企业轻装上阵,提高竞争力。我们还要通过像降网费、电费、物流成本等措施,力争今年减税降费能够达到万亿元人民币。当然,根本上还要降低制度性交易成本。
Premier Li: I devoted a significant portion of my government work report on further cutting taxes and fees, particularly the myriad of excessive administrative fees that are exacting a heavy burden on businesses. These fees are used to cover certain expenses, such as keeping up some payrolls. To cut down fees, the government must tighten its belt. I have made it clear that the central government will take the lead in doing so and cut its general expenditures by no less than 5% this year. And in my discussions with officials from local governments, they all agreed that this is what they also need to do. So we will use this painful adjustment on the part of the government to make things easier for businesses to enhance their competitiveness. Furthermore, we will take steps this year to cut broadband, electricity and logistics costs. Our goal is to bring down taxes and fees by up to one trillion RMB yuan. A most fundamental measure is to reduce government-imposed transaction cost.
至于消费者抱怨中国的一些产品质量不优,这说明我们的企业需要让产品进入质量时代,这也是供给侧结构性改革的重要内容。我们实施《中国制造2025》,就是要提升企业产品和装备的质量。国际上有一种舆论,说是不是中国会减少进口,开放有所收缩,这是误解。提高中国产品的质量,促进产业迈向中高端,必然要更大地打开开放的大门,更多地引进国外先进技术和产品。当然我们会严格保护知识产权,让中外企业双赢。对于普通消费者所需要的一些优质产品一时供给不上,我们还可能考虑降低关税、增加进口。总之,要让消费者有更多选择,从中受惠。更重要的是让我们的企业下决心,通过发扬工匠精神,使自己的产品赢得消费者的信赖。
As for the complaints of some Chinese consumers about the quality of domestically made goods, I believe this is an important message to all Chinese businesses to enhance quality control. It is also an important part of the supply-side structural reform. We've launched the Made in China 2025 strategy, which aims to raise the quality of Chinese products and equipment. Some people question if that means China will reduce import and retreat in its opening-up. That is a misunderstanding. On the contrary, raising our own products' quality and upgrading our own industries to a medium-high level would actually require us to open even wider to the outside world and introduce more advanced technologies and products. In this process, we will see to it that intellectual property rights will be well protected for the benefit of their proprietors. As for those high-end products which cannot be manufactured locally for the time being, we may consider lowering tariffs to boost import. In a word, we need to give our consumers more options and more benefits, and most importantly, harden the resolve of Chinese companies to win over consumers with their commitment to high quality and workermanship.
 
台湾《联合报》记者:去年以来两岸关系越来越复杂严峻,前景令人担忧。面对这样的形势,大陆如何维护两岸关系的和平发展,以及两岸同胞的福祉?
United Daily News of Taiwan: Over the past year, relations across the Taiwan Straits have become complex and grave with an uncertain future. Under such circumstances, what will the mainland do to uphold peaceful development of cross-Straits relations and safeguard the well-being of people on both sides?
 
李克强:两岸是骨肉同胞,血浓于水。不管岛内形势如何变化,都割断不了两岸的亲情,改变不了两岸同属一个中国的历史和现状,也改变不了我们维护两岸关系和平发展的决心和诚意。
Premier Li: People on the two sides of the Taiwan Straits are brothers and sisters. Blood is thicker than water. No matter how the situation on Taiwan may evolve, it cannot sever the fraternal bond between the two sides, or change the history or the reality that both sides of the Taiwan Straits belong to one and the same China. Nor will it weaken our resolve and sincerity for peaceful growth of cross-Straits relations.
 
我们对台方针是一贯的、明确的,就是要坚持体现一个中国原则的“九二共识”政治基础,坚决反对“台独”,维护台海和平,维护两岸关系和平发展,增进两岸同胞的福祉。
Our policy towards Taiwan has been consistent and clear-cut, that is, we will stick to the political foundation of the 1992 consensus, which embodies the one-China principle, firmly oppose Taiwan independence, uphold peace across the Taiwan Straits and peaceful development of cross-Straits relations and improve the well-being of people on both sides.
两岸的和平发展确实给两岸同胞带来了很多新的机遇。据不完全统计,每年大概有500万台湾同胞往返于大陆和岛内。我们会出台更多政策让台湾同胞在大陆就业、创业、工作、生活,享受一家人一样的便利条件。对台商来大陆投资,我们是欢迎的。我记得去年在记者会上曾经有人提出,希望继续保持对台商投资的优惠政策。我重申:我们会继续提供优惠,让台商、台湾同胞和大陆一起共享发展的机遇。终归我们是一家人。
The peaceful growth of cross-Straits relations has brought new opportunities for people on both sides. According to current statistics, people on Taiwan make 5 million visits across the Straits every year. We will introduce more policies to provide more convenience for people in Taiwan to work and live on the mainland as family. We welcome investment from Taiwan businesses. I recall that at last year's press conference, I was asked whether the mainland will keep preferential policies toward Taiwan businesses. I wish to reiterate here that such policies will be maintained to enable Taiwan businesses and people to share in China's development opportunities with their compatriots on the mainland. After all, we are one family.
 
法兰西广播公司记者:欧盟是中国第二大贸易伙伴,但欧盟对华贸易赤字高达1370亿欧元,这是欧方的统计数字。所以欧盟一些企业对此颇有微词。请问中国如何进一步改进对欧企业的市场准入,以及对于外商投资给予更好的对等待遇?
Radio France: The European Union is China's second largest commercial partner with a trade deficit of 137 billion euros in favor of China and a large number of European businesses complain about that. What is China proposing to improve market access condition for European businesses? And what about better reciprocity of foreign investments?
 
李克强:你刚才说的中欧贸易逆差是欧方的统计,讲的很正确。当然,中方从不刻意追求贸易顺差,而且希望看到贸易平衡,否则不可持续。如果说赚钱的话,我想欧洲企业在中国不仅有钱可赚,而且还是赚大头,因为你们处于价值链的高端。如果你们欧洲放宽对华高技术出口,那贸易不平衡的状况就会有明显改善。
Premier Li: You rightly referred to the trade deficit figure as EU statistics. The fact of the matter is, China never goes after trade surpluses. What we want is balanced trade, as unbalanced trade would not be sustainable. Talking about profits, I think European companies have not just earned profits in China, but have also taken the lion's share of such profits, as they are at the higher end of the industrial chain. If the EU could ease its restrictions on high-tech exports to China, I believe that would make a big difference in our trade balance.
 
中国提出和欧盟推进投资协定谈判,希望能够得到积极的回应。有一个高水平的双边投资协定,那必将会有助于双方扩大相互开放。即便暂时没有这个协定,我们也会不断扩大对欧盟企业的准入,让欧盟企业在华投资和中国企业一样,只要注册了,就一视同仁。中欧之间存在贸易摩擦,我们有经验去妥善解决。
China has proposed to the EU to push forward the BIT negotiations. We hope to receive a positive response. A high-standard BIT will help two-way opening-up between the two sides. And pending that, we will continue to widen market access for European businesses and ensure that European-invested companies registered in China receive the same treatment as domestic Chinese enterprises. With respect to trade frictions between the two sides, we have gained good experience in properly addressing them.
 
我这里特别强调,中国始终愿意看到一个团结繁荣稳定的欧盟和强大的欧元,支持欧洲一体化进程,因为这有利于经济全球化、世界多极化和文明多样化。我对欧盟的前景是乐观的,我们对中欧关系的发展前景也是看好的。
Here I want to emphasize that China has all along supported a united, prosperous and stable European Union, a strong euro, and the European integration process. We believe that is good for economic globalization, for a multipolar world and for diversity of civilizations. We feel optimistic about the future of the EU and the future of China-EU relations.
 
《新京报》记者:这几年雾霾成了百姓心中的一个痛点,严重地影响了大家的生活,但是每当重大活动来的时候蓝天也就回来了,大家都兴高采烈地拍照、刷朋友圈。请问总理,怎么样才能让持续的蓝天不再是奢侈品呢?
Beijing News: In recent years, smog has caused great public concern and severely affected people's lives. Yet we also discover that whenever a major event is held, the smog would disappear and people would take pictures of blue skies and post them online with much excitement. So I want to ask you, Mr. Premier, what can you do to make sure that blue skies are no longer a luxury?
 
李克强:雾霾问题的确是百姓的痛点。蓝天和空气一样,对每个人都是平等的,我们在座的各位都希望看到更多的蓝天,但中国在发展过程中确实遇到了环保特别是雾霾问题的挑战。我在政府工作报告当中讲了五条措施,会坚定地向前推进,真正打一场“蓝天保卫战”。但是也坦率地告诉各位,这需要有一个过程。
Premier Li: I fully understand that the smog is a huge irritant in people's lives. Like air, blue skies treat everyone equally. We all want to see more blue-sky days. In the course of development, China is confronted with severe environmental challenges, smog in particular. In my government work report, I laid out five key measures for smog control and we will push them through with full determination to fight and win the battle on smog. But to be honest with you, that will take time.
 
我们治理雾霾目前重点对着燃煤、尾气排放、扬尘等,但今年我参加两会讨论的时候,有科学家说,除此之外还有其他很重要的因素,雾霾的形成机理我们还没完全搞透。他说中国北方冬季的雾霾成因在全世界都是特殊的,当然,这个因素我不便在这儿讲,科学家还要做充分的论证。但是,我想明确,国家为此将设立专项基金,不惜重金组织最优秀的相关科学家攻关,抓紧把雾霾形成的未知因素找出来,使治理雾霾更加有效。
The main targets for smog control would be to tackle coal-burning, vehicle emissions and dust. In addition, during this year's Two Sessions, I was told by a scientist that apart from these obvious causes, we have not yet fully understood how smog is formed, which is as important. He said, the smog in Northern China during winter is unique compared to that in other parts of the world. Of course, this is not the proper venue to expand on this subject, and the scientists will have to conduct further research. But one thing I can tell you is that we will set up a special fund to bring in the best scientists to dig into this matter regardless of cost and uncover the unknown factors to make our campaign against smog more effective.
 
大自然的阴晴风雨不是人类能支配的,但是我们可以支配我们的行为,可以转变我们的发展方式。我和大家的心情一样,雾霾要治理,蓝天在未来不会也不应该成为奢侈品。
We may not be able to control the weather, but we can adjust our behavior and our way of development. I feel the same way as you all do. Smog must be put under control and blue skies should no longer be a luxury, nor will it be.
 
《中国消费者报》记者:今天是“3·15”,请总理给消费者说几句话。
China Consumer News: Today is the Consumers' Rights Day. Can you say a few words to consumers, Mr. Premier?
 
李克强:我和大家一样都是消费者,都需要权益保护,用网络语言说:我们要给优质产品“点赞”,把不良奸商“拉黑”。大家共同努力,让我们的优质产品一天一天多起来,让我们的生活一年比一年好。
Premier Li: You and I are all consumers, and we all need protection of our rights. To use popular Internet language, we should give "thumbs-up" to quality products and "blacklist" those bad traders. With joint efforts, we will enjoy more quality products and a better life year after year.
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